Dr. Emmanuel B. Yamb
University of Bamenda, Republic of Cameroon, P.O Box 8842 Douala,;

Dr. Christian A. Bock Hyeng
North Carolina A&T State University, School of Technology, 1601 East Market Street, Greensboro NC, 27411, 336-334-7199,


      Industrial wastes produced from civil engineering projects can lead to severe environmental impacts. One of such waste is heavy metal like mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) which may have to be disposed of after demolition. However, the disposal of heavy metals at landfills could lead to the migration of metal ions into the surrounding soils, in the form of insoluble hydroxides, such as chromium hydroxides, aluminum hydroxide, iron hydroxides, and thereby posing health risk. Consequently, it is of uttermost importance for heavy metals to be reused in civil construction in order to reduce the volume that could be brought to the landfills or disposal sites. This paper uses analytical concepts to study the ecological, and environmental impacts of heavy metal disposal at landfills, and how their reuse could significantly address the issue of metal leachate into the soil as well as the reduction of its impact on global warming and the environment as a whole. Thus, these heavy metals have been extensively studied and their effect on the environment, and on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as WHO with more emphasis on proper discarding of these materials rather than reuse.

Dr. Yamb & Dr. Bock Migration_of_Heavy_Metals (Green Conference)_pge

An article published inside the International Journal of Materials Engineering and Technology © 2017 Pushpa Publishing House, Allahabad, India
Website: ;
(Volume 16, Numbers 1-2, 2017, Pages 1-20 ISSN: 0975-0444 )

Received: December 20, 2016; Accepted: February 5, 2017

Yamb Emmanuel
University of Douala
P.O. Box: 8842, Douala
Bahel Benjamin
University of Douala
P.O. Box: 1872, Douala
Bock Hyeng Christian Alain
School of Technology
North Carolina A&T State University
1601 East Market Street
Greensboro NC, 27411, U. S. A.


       We study the geotechnical parameters (void ratio and hydraulic conductivity) of two types of mixtures of particles (crushed gravel and rounded gravel), and determine the porosity n (or the void ratio e)
along with the permeability or hydraulic conductivity by the weight mass method. A progressive evolution of the void ratio of the three granular classes is established starting with completely crushed gravel to the fully rounded gravel. We establish a dependency of the void ratio in function of the size range for each grain size.
       The study of the permeability or the hydraulic conductivity enables to see a decrease in the evolution of the permeability of different granular classes in function of the shape of the grains. Fully crushed gravels have a higher permeability. We rely on the fact that the values of permeabilities do not follow that of the void ratio and we have established a difference between porosity and drainage which is a function of the stack and grain shape. And then we have established a relationship between the measured values and the predictive values of
Chapuis [4].

Keywords and phrases: void ratio, permeability, rounded gravel, crushed gravel, weight mass.

2017_x_1_PPH-1612058-MET - Final Version

An article published inside the International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Website: ,
(ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316 )

Volume 8, Issue 8, August 2017, pp. 1662–1673, Article ID: IJCIET_08_08_181

B. Bahel
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Douala
E. Yamb
Civil Engineering Department, University of Douala
S. Owona and G. E. Ekodeck
Department of geology, Faculty of Sciences, university of Douala


          We studied the clogging in the granular layers of drainage formed with the mixing of gravel (rounded and crushed) by leachate from the percolation of solid household waste with clogging index. A series of curves of the clogging index have been plotted according to the constitution of the layer of gravel beginning with one of the curve obtain with the entirely rounded gravel and another with the entirely crushed gravel and the rest from a progressive mixtures of particles of crushed gravel in rounded one. Also we established a relation between the void index or porosity in function of the percentage mixing of rounded gravel and crushed gravel in the various granular layers for drainage. Thereafter a relation between the clogging index, the porosity or
void index and the drainage layers according to the percentage mixing of gravel rounded and crushed were plotted.
       The study on the clogging index allowed us to observe a pattern of the curves depending on the nature of the gravel having identical appearance and some mingled. It is therefore apparent that the sample with 40% of the rounded gravel clogged faster than the others. But what we noted is that the clogging index does not change significantly according to the different types of layers and approaches the results of Blond 2012. Also these results showed us that rationalize management of the gravel can serve as a level to take environmental phenomena in consideration when constructing or exploiting the Center of Storage of the Household Waste (CSHW).

Key words: Clogging index, mixing gravel, Leachate, Waste storage center

An article published inside the Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Application
Website:, (ISSN: 2248-9622, Vol. 6, Issue 9, (Part -3) September 2016, pp.50-59)

Christian Bock-Hyeng, Ph.D.1,    Andrea N. Ofori-Boadu, Ph.D.2

Emmanuel Yamb-Bell, Ph.D.3,    Musibau A. Shofoluwe, D.IT.4

1-Assistant Professor, Department of Built Environment, North Carolina A & T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina.
2-Assistant Professor, Department of Built Environment, North Carolina A & T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina.
3-Professor, Department of Civil Engineering and Forestry Techniques, The University of Bamenda, Cameroun.
4-Professor, Department of Built Environment, North Carolina A & T State University, Greensboro, North Carolina.


In the pursuit of cheaper and more sustainable building materials to meet housing demands in developing countries like Cameroun, the mechanical properties of adobe bricks which have been stabilized with recycled sugarcane fiber waste were investigated. Laboratory experiments were conducted using sugarcane fiber waste stabilized adobe brick specimens with fiber proportions of 0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 1.2%, 2% and 3% by weight. Fiber stabilization increased compressive strength by 58.61% for 3% bricks, reaching 4.79 MPa. Further, 3% fiber stabilized bricks shrunk by 7.49%, while the non-stabilized bricks shrunk by 12.13%. Also, 3% bricks lasted for one week before deterioration when immersed in water, while the non-stabilized bricks lasted for only a few hours. The findings confirmed that sugarcane fiber waste stabilized adobe bricks have improved strength, durability and stability. The use of abandoned sugarcane fiber waste in adobe bricks will contribute to the development of more durable, sustainable and stronger adobe brick structures, as well as reduce the environmental and economic challenges associated with the disposal of sugarcane waste.

Keywords:Adobe bricks, Sustainability, Sugarcane fiber (bagasse), Material properties, Mechanical properties.


An article published inside Международное научное издание International Scientific Journal Выпуск

№3 (36), 2014 lsst1e №3 (36), 2014 ISSN 2224-01 87

Serykh I.R., Yamb Emmanuel
Belgorod State Technological University патеd after V. G. Shoukhov,
Russia, Belgorod, Kostyukov str. ,   46, 308012


An article published inside Materials Sciences and Applications 2013, 4, 1-5
Website: , (DOI:10.4236/msa.2013.47A1001 Published Online July 2013)

Received April 14th, 2013; revised May 26th, 2013; accepted June 7th, 2013

Copyright © 2013 Emmanuel Yamb, Christian A. Bock Hyeng. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Emmanuel Yamb1 ,  Christian A. Bock Hyeng2

1-University of Bamenda, Douala, Cameroon;Email: *
2-North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University, Greensboro, USA.


The steel-concrete constructions experience an increased development this last time. The main advantages are that they ensure the economy of materials, energy and labour. The steel-concrete elements allow a rational use of the concrete in the tensile zone, ensure a reduction of the weight of the building, its cost and also reduce the formwork. The calculations carried out by the authors make it possible to establish the dependence between the constraints and the deformations in the principal directions under a biaxial state of stresses, to obtain the expressions of the principal moments, determine the parameters of the deformations of the concrete Eb, Ebi, νb, νbi, obtained through the reduction of the tensile and compressive stresses of the concrete in an isotropic conventional homogeneous state. The expressions of the constraints in the plate are gotten and compared between the theoretical values and the experimental convergence of the results with a variation of < 8%.

Keywords: Stress; Strain; Steel-Concrete; Internal Forces

An article published inside the International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2013)

Emmanuel Yamb1, Christian Bock Hyeng2, François Ngapgue3
1-University of Bamenda, Cameroon; P.O. Box: 8842 Douala, Cameroon
2-North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, 1601 E. Market St., Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
3-University of Dschang, Cameroon; P.O. Box: 134, Cameroon


The preoccupation with an improvement of constructions in civil engineering leads to the adoption of the more powerful systems according to resistance, safety, the technology of implementation and also to the cost. The calculation of the steel-concrete elements was based beforehand on the experimental established formulae. This article proposes theoretical bases for the calculation of the interior forces, the normal and tangential constraints in the element as well as the acceptable load estimating in the steel-concrete plates. These formulae are justified by experimental data obtained. The divergence between these experimental values and the theoretical results obtained does not exceed 13,9%.

Keywords: Anchors, Bearing capacity, Steel-concrete plate, Ultimate load, Ultimate moment.


Scroll to Top